Broncopulmonar Infantil

Enfermedades Respiratorias Pediátricas

Jun 13, 2017, 15:26 PM
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    Sobre la Unidad

    La especialidad de Enfermedades Respiratorias Pediátricas se preocupa de la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias, agudas y crónicas, congénitas y adquiridas, en niños desde que son recién nacidos hasta su adolescencia.

    El principal objetivo de esta especialidad es controlar el impacto de las enfermedades respiratorias en los niños afectados y su entorno, ya que ellas son la causa más frecuente de consultas y hospitalizaciones en la infancia.

    Subespecialidades relacionadas

    • Radiología.
    • Kinesiología.
    • Cirugía cardiotorácica.
    • Inmunología y Alergología.
    • Otorrinolaringología.
    • Intensivo.
    • Neonatología.
    • Neurología.
    • Gastroenterología.
    • Cardiología.
    • Neurología.

    Enfermedades

    Dentro de una gran variedad, los principales problemas respiratorios de la infancia son:

    • Enfermedades infeccioso-inflamatorias de la vía aérea y de los pulmones, como laringitis, bronquitis obstructiva, bronquiolitis y neumonías, virales o bacterianas.
    • Enfermedades alérgico-inflamatorias como rinitis alérgica y asma.
    • Problemas asociados a secuelas de la inmadurez pulmonar del prematuro y malformaciones congénitas respiratorias.
    • Enfermedades crónicas menos frecuentes como disquinesia ciliar y fibrosis quística.
    • Accidentes como la inhalación de un cuerpo extraño en la vía aérea y trauma torácico.

    Procedimientos

    Los principales procedimientos asociados con los que cuenta la especialidad son los que se practican en el laboratorio especializado de función pulmonar y alergia, y la fibrobroncoscopía.

    En el laboratorio de función pulmonar y alergia los exámenes de función respiratoria se practican incluso desde niños tan pequeños como preescolares; en esta Unidad se realizan espirometría y curva flujo/volumen, test de provocación bronquial con ejercicio, test de metacolina, saturometría continua, test cutáneos de alergia para inhalantes y alimentos.

    La fibrobroncoscopía cuenta con modernos endoscopios que permiten realizar este procedimiento incluso en recién nacidos prematuros. Este examen permite la visualización de la vía aérea principalmente para fines de exploración diagnóstica, pero también para algunos actos terapéuticos dentro de la tráquea y los bronquios.

    Unidad de Educación en Asma Bronquial

    ¿Qué es el asma?

    El asma bronquial es una enfermedad crónica, producida por una inflamación persistente de los bronquios, generalmente de origen alérgico. Esta patología se manifiesta con episodios recurrentes de obstrucción bronquial.

    En Chile, entre un 10% a 15% de la población pediátrica padece esta enfermedad.

    Síntomas

    • Tos.
    • Silbido en el pecho al respirar.
    • Sensación de pecho apretado.
    • Sensación de falta de aire.

    Tratamiento

    Existen dos tipos de medicamentos:

    • De rescate (salbutamol): alivian al paciente rápidamente cuando está con una crisis.
    • Mantención (corticoides inhalados): actúan controlando la inflamación bronquial, evitando que el paciente tenga una crisis. Es un tratamiento de prevención, por lo que su uso debe ser permanente.

    Para el tratamiento del asma se utiliza la vía inhalatoria, ya que así se puede actuar directamente en el bronquio. Para lograr una buena llegada de los medicamentos, los inhaladores siempre deben ser usados con una aerocámara, utilizando la técnica inhalatoria correcta. 

    ¿Por qué se produce una crisis de asma?

    Porque los bronquios inflamados de los pacientes asmáticos reaccionan frente a distintos estímulos obstruyéndose bruscamente, también llamados gatillantes. Los más importantes son las infecciones respiratorias virales y el contacto con alérgenos a los cuales el paciente esté sensibilizado, como polvo de habitación, pastos o pólenes. Otro gatillante frecuente es la contaminación ambiental intradomiciliaria como es el uso de la estufa a parafina o leña y el tabaquismo. 

    Educación al paciente y a su familia

    Debido a la importancia de saber manejar esta enfermedad, el Centro de Enfermedades Respiratorias Infantiles de Clínica Santa María cuenta con la Unidad de Educación en Asma Bronquial, dirigida a los niños asmáticos y a sus padres.

    El objetivo de esta Unidad es dar herramientas a las familias para poder manejar en forma óptima la enfermedad, de manera que el paciente pueda estar libre de síntomas, no presentar crisis y así tener una buena calidad de vida. A cargo de esta Unidad están las pediatras broncopulmonares Ana María Herrera y María Angélica Pérez.

    La actividad consiste en una sesión educativa individual donde las especialistas dan a conocer, en forma didáctica y entretenida las bases de la enfermedad, las causales de descompensación, el uso apropiado de los inhaladores y el plan a seguir frente a una crisis de asma. 

    ¿Por qué acudir a esta Unidad?

    Clínica Santa María es la primera Clínica que cuenta con este programa, lo que permite entregar a los pacientes importantes beneficios para mejorar su calidad de vida:

    • Evitar el ausentismo escolar.
    • Evitar o disminuir la frecuencia de crisis.
    • Evitar o disminuir las hospitalizaciones y/o consultas al Servicio de Urgencia.
     
    Ubicación

    Centro Médico Pediátrico:
    Av. Bellavista 0415, 2° piso, Providencia.

    Centro Médico La Dehesa:
    Av. La Dehesa 1445, 3° piso, Lo Barnechea.

    Teléfono
    +56 2 2913 0000